NEWS | July 12, 2018

Six tips for preventing snake bites


Sign by grassy field alerts pedestrians to watch out for rattlesnakes to prevent snake bites
As rattlesnakes move closer to backyards looking for sources of water, UC Davis toxicologists offer tips for preventing snake bites.

According to the California Poison Control System, hundreds of rattlesnake bites are reported annually in California, with additional cases also managed by physicians and hospitals. Most rattlesnake bites occur between the months of April and October.

Rattlesnakes do not always make their characteristic rattling sound, so someone can be standing next to a rattlesnake and not even know it. Even baby rattlesnakes possess dangerous venom as soon as they hatch, so it's essential to be aware of one’s surroundings, follow precautions when outdoors and get to a hospital as soon as you can if you've been bitten by a rattlesnake.

Six tips to prevent rattlesnake bites

1. Wear boots and long pants when hiking to help block rattlesnake venom.

Never go barefoot or wear sandals when walking in areas where you cannot clearly see where you are placing your feet. Wearing hiking boots and long pants offer an extra layer of protection from unexpected encounters with a rattlesnake.

2. Stay on trails when hiking, away from underbrush and tall weeds.

Snakes can rest almost anywhere that is hidden from view and enables them to hide from predators, avoid extreme temperatures and hunt for prey. Because trails tend to have fewer hiding places for snakes, they offer a level of protection for you. Brush offers protection for snakes. Stay on trails to avoid potentially disturbing a rattlesnake in hiding.

Listen to the sound of a rattlesnake (mp3).
Rattlesnake tail

3. Do not touch or disturb a snake, even if it appears dead.

Snakes use their hidden position to strike and kill their prey by surprise. Don’t mistake their apparent stillness as a safe opportunity to investigate. Even freshly killed snakes may still be able to bite.

4. Always look for concealed snakes before picking up rocks, sticks or firewood

Since rattlesnakes are often well-camouflaged and wait quietly for prey, they can be difficult to see. Piles of rocks or logs, patches of dense shrubs, and expanses of tall grasses are just few of the places where snakes may seek shelter. Carefully inspect logs or rocks before picking them up or sitting down to avoid accidentally disturbing a rattlesnake.

5. Never hike alone in remote areas. Always have someone with you who can assist in an emergency.

Having a hiking partner is important to help in a crisis, especially in a situation where you or your hiking partner is bitten by a snake. If safe to do so, have your hiking partner photograph the snake so that identification can be made to aid in treatment.

6. Teach children to respect snakes and to leave them alone.

Curious children who pick up snakes are frequently bitten. Teach them always to give snakes the right of way to prevent snake bites.

If bitten by a rattlesnake:

Photo of beagle walking on a trail aloneProtect dogs and other animals from being bitten by a rattlesnake. Ask your veterinarian about rattlesnake anti-venom and vaccines, and immediately contact your veterinarian if your animal has been bitten.

Get immediate medical attention, as severe or even life-threatening symptoms may occur within minutes after the bite, or in other cases may begin after couple of hours.

Rattlesnake bites can produce extreme pain and swelling at the location of the bite, excessive bleeding, nausea, swelling in the mouth and throat making it difficult to breathe, lightheadedness, drooling, and even collapse and shock in rare cases.

Do not apply ice, do not use a tourniquet or constricting band, do not try to suck out the venom, and do not use any device to cut or slice the bite site.

Constricting blood vessels near a rattlesnake bite can lead to amputation. Wash the wound with soap and water, and remove wristwatches, rings or anything constrictive.

Keep calm, do not run and keep the affected extremity below heart level until you can be transported to a medical facility.


Where to get help if bitten by a rattlesnake:

Immediately call 1-800-222-1222 to reach poison information experts who are available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Learn more at the California Poison Control System website: